Open and Closed cycle A/c Systems:
Open-cycle systems are more beneficial in buildings with high humidity loads and high air exchange rates. The installation of ducts for the supply air and the return air, along with a heat healing unit is required. In this, the outdoors air is dehumidified through sorption and is then given the desired temperature level by heat healing in addition to direct and indirect evaporative cooling. Typically dehumidifying is attained in a rotor consisting of the desiccant product silica gel or lithium chloride, however progressively liquid desiccants (desiccant material: lithium chloride) are being tried. In these systems the solar heat is needed for the regeneration of the absorption/adsorption system.
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Closed-cycle desiccant evaporative cooling systems are based on the processes of Adsorption (based on strong desiccants like silica gel or Zeolites with water as refrigerant) or Absorption (where desiccants are liquid ex. material sets of lithium bromide as desiccant and water as refrigerant, or water as desiccant and ammonia as refrigerant, where sub Absolutely no temperatures may be required).
For cooling and acclimatizing of buildings, only solar-thermally driven procedures are used.
In real practice, solar batteries are utilized to convert solar radiation to heat that is then fed into a thermally owned cooling procedure or into a direct air-conditioning process. Particularly in special applications, for instance for cooling medications in remote locations that are not connected to the grid, a photovoltaic generator changes solar radiation to solar power that then owns a refrigeration procedure – normally in the form of a compression chiller.
There have been significant developments in the field of solar-assisted cooling and heating and world over this innovation is being quickly attempted and embraced.
Recently Solar thermal World Publication reported that India’s newest and probably biggest solar thermal based air-conditioning system went operational at Muni Seva Ashram (MSA) in Goraj, situated in the Vadodara district of Gujarat state in western India. An overall of 100 parabolic dishes (Scheffler type) by the Indian business Gadhia Solar power Systems (GSES) – each 12.5 m2 in size – now provide the already existing 100-ton air-conditioning system of the 160-bed medical facility at Muni Seva Ashram. [i]
Performance of Solar Cooling
While developing a SAC system and for judging its performance the key points to observe are the Load Profile, Outdoors temperature levels & humidity.
The choice whether solar cooling is sensible at all is influenced highly by the load profile. Solar irradiation and cooling demand must be correlated, given that the use of fossil fuels for the operation of the chiller is unfavorable from a main energy viewpoint and must be avoided.